Emodi-Perlman A, Hochhauser T, Winocur P, Friedman-Rubin P, Eli I. The effect of smartphones on daytime sleepiness, temporomandibular disorders, and bruxism among young adults. Quintessence Int. 2021 Apr 21;0(0):0. doi: 10.3290/j.qi.b1244431. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33880912.
Objectives: Effects of modern cellular technology on our lives is a relatively new topic of interest. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of smartphone use on daytime sleepiness, temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and bruxism (sleep and awake) among young adults in Israel.
Method and materials: Questionnaires on demographic variables, mobile phone use characteristics, anxiety, depression, daytime sleepiness, bruxism (sleep and awake), and diagnosis of TMD were filled in by ultra-Orthodox young adults (18 to 35 years of age) using a simple mobile device with no internet connection, religious young adults who use an internet-connected smartphone solely for work purposes, and secular young adults with an internet-connected smartphone for unlimited use.
Results: Various aspects of smartphone use, including being awakened at night by the phone, stress caused by information delivered by the phone, and stress from phone overuse increased the risks of daytime sleepiness, TMD, and bruxism. Those sequelae are associated with substantial negative effects on both the individual and society. High risks of motor vehicle accidents, chronic orofacial pain, and irreversible damage to hard dental tissue structures are some of those negative consequences.
Conclusions: The adverse effects of smartphone use on daytime sleepiness, TMD, and bruxism are substantial. Their influence on public health and health care costs are causes of concern.