Kaur, S., Vian, A., Chandel, S. et al. Sensitivity of plants to high frequency electromagnetic radiation: cellular mechanisms and morphological changes. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-020-09563-9
The technological advancement and increased usage of wireless and other communication devices have greatly enhanced the level of radiofrequency electromagnetic field radiation (EMF-r) in the environment. It has resulted in unprecedented increased exposure of living organisms to these radiations. Most of the studies in past have, however, focused on animal systems and comparatively less attention has been paid to plants with studies reporting various, sometimes contradictory effects. This review is an attempt to provide a critical appraisal of the available reports regarding the impacts of these radiations on plant development and the underlying physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we propose that the main entry point for the biological effects of EMF-r corresponds to an increase in ROS metabolism and cytosolic calcium that leads to various cellular responses including changes in gene expression and/or enzymatic activities, which could ultimately result in immediate cellular alterations or delayed plant growth. This may constitute a new perspective in the interpretation of plant responses to EMF-r exposure. Understanding the impacts of EMF-r and the inherent abilities of plants to cope up with such changes should lead to EMF-r being considered as full-fledged environmental signals that are perceived by the plants and integrated into their development patterns.