Photobiomodulation of the Visual System and Human Health

Open access article

Buch, J.; Hammond, B. Photobiomodulation of the Visual System and Human Health. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 202021, 8020.



Humans express an expansive and detailed response to wavelength differences within the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. This is most clearly manifest, and most studied, with respect to a relatively small range of electromagnetic radiation that includes the visible wavelengths with abutting ultraviolet and infrared, and mostly with respect to the visual system. Many aspects of our biology, however, respond to wavelength differences over a wide range of the EM spectrum. Further, humans are now exposed to a variety of modern lighting situations that has, effectively, increased our exposure to wavelengths that were once likely minimal (e.g., “blue” light from devices at night). This paper reviews some of those biological effects with a focus on visual function and to a lesser extent, other body systems.

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