Kuo TC, Lin CC, Tsai CC, Chen SJ, Hung TM, Hsieh CC, Lu JY, Huang RN. Toxicity of Terahertz-Based Functional Mineral Water (Plant-Derived) to Immature Stages of Mosquito Vectors. Insects. 2021 Mar 2;12(3):211. doi: 10.3390/insects12030211. PMID: 33801362; PMCID: PMC7998476.
In light of the shortcomings of using insecticides, there is an urgent need to explore alternative compounds that are effective for mosquito control with minimal adverse effects. The terahertz-based functional mineral water used in the current study exhibited concentration-dependent toxicity to mosquito larvae, pupae and larvivorous predatory copepods and could be a potential biodegradable and eco-friendly bioinsecticide.
Functional mineral water and related products are popular in some Asian countries as health drinks and, recently, have been employed in agricultural crop production as well as pest control. This study aimed to investigate the survival of mosquito vectors exposed to plant-derived functional mineral water produced by terahertz technology. The terahertz-based functional mineral water used in the current study not only decreased the hatching of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae but also showed concentration-dependent toxicity to the 3rd instar larvae and pupae of the three mosquito species tested. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Cx. quinquefasciatus pupae were more susceptible to terahertz-based functional mineral water than the larval stage, as indicated by their lower LC50. Lower concentrations (<100 ppm) of terahertz-based functional mineral water were not lethal to the pupae; however, these low concentrations still resulted in a reduced adult emergence. Although terahertz-based functional mineral water did not significantly affect Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) hatching, it could potentially be used for vector control at the larvae and pupae stages. The larvicidal and pupicidal activity of diluted terahertz-based functional mineral water gradually diminished after 24 h, indicating that it is a biodegradable and eco-friendly bioinsecticide. However, as the terahertz-based functional mineral water is also toxic to larvivorous predatory-copepods, it should not be utilized in aquatic environments where predatory-based mosquito control programs are employed.