Rafał B. Lewandowski, Małgorzata Stępińska, Andrzej Gietka, Monika Dobrzyńska, Mariusz P. Łapiński & Elżbieta A. Trafny (2021) The red-light emitting diode irradiation increases proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells preserving their immunophenotype, International Journal of Radiation Biology, 97:4, 553-563, DOI: 10.1080/09553002.2021.1876947
For effective clinical application of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs), the enhancement of their proliferation in vitro together with maintaining the expression of their crucial surface antigens and differentiation potential is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on hBM-MSCs proliferation after two, five, or nine days post-irradiation.
Materials and methods
The hBM-MSCs were exposed to the LED light at 630 nm, 4 J/cm2, and power densities of 7, 17, or 30 mW/cm2. To assess the cell proliferation rate in the sham-irradiated and irradiated samples the cells metabolic activity and DNA content were determined. The number of apoptotic and necrotic cells in the samples was also evaluated. The expression of the crucial surface antigens of the hBM-MSCs up to nine days after irradiation at 4 J/cm2 and 17 mW/cm2 was monitored with flow cytometry. Additionally, the potential of hBM-MSCs for induced differentiation was measured.
When the metabolic activity was assayed, the significant increase in the cell proliferation rate by 31 and 50% after the irradiation with 4 J/cm2 and 17 mW/cm2, respectively, was observed at day five and nine when compared to the sham-irradiated cells (p < .05). Similarly, DNA content within the irradiated hBM-MSCs increased by 31 and 41% at day five and nine after the irradiation with 4 J/cm2 and 17 mW/cm2 in comparison to the sham-irradiated cells. LED irradiation did not change the expression of the crucial surface antigens of the hBM-MSCs up to nine days after irradiation at 4 J/cm2 and 17 mW/cm2. At the same experimental conditions, the hBM-MSCs maintain in vitro their capability for multipotential differentiation into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes.
Therefore, LED irradiation at a wavelength of 630 nm, energy density 4 J/cm2, and power density 17 mW/cm2 can effectively increase the number of viable hBM-MSCs in vitro.