Romeo, S.; Zeni, O.; Scarfì, M.R.; Poeta, L.; Lioi, M.B.; Sannino, A. Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure and Apoptosis: A Scoping Review of In Vitro Studies on Mammalian Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 2322. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042322
In the last decades, experimental studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of radiofrequency (RF, 100 kHz–300 GHz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure on the apoptotic process. As evidence-based critical evaluation of RF and apoptosis in vitro is lacking, we performed a scoping literature review with the aim of systematically mapping the research performed in this area and identifying gaps in knowledge. Eligible for inclusion were in vitro studies assessing apoptosis in mammalian cells exposed to RF-EMF, which met basic quality criteria (sham control, at least three independent experiments, appropriate dosimetry analysis and temperature monitoring). We conducted a systematic literature review and charted data in order to overview the main characteristics of included studies. From the 4362 papers retrieved with our search strategy, 121 were pertinent but, among them, only 42 met basic quality criteria. We pooled data with respect to exposure (frequency, exposure level and duration) and biological parameters (cell type, endpoint), and highlighted some qualitative trends with respect to the detection of significant effect of RF-EMF on the apoptotic process. We provided a qualitative picture of the evidence accumulated so far, and highlighted that the quality of experimental methodology still needs to be highly improved.