Jagielski K, Kraus T, Stunder D. Interference of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices by Static Electric and Magnetic Fields. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1080/17434440.2021.1902802. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33710950.
Introduction: : Electromagnetic interference (EMI) of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) can lead to malfunctions and pose a danger for implant carriers. The increased use of DC technologies, e.g., in electric mobility, creates more static fields representing an increasing hazard for implant carriers.
Areas covered: : A combination of approaches was used to determine thresholds for EMI by static fields. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant EMI mechanisms and to extract possible thresholds. The literature search revealed four interference mechanisms caused by static magnetic fields and none for static electric fields. Due to the scarce information on motion-induced EMI, numerical simulations were performed to obtain a threshold. The simulation results were evaluated using medical product standards and benchmark tests on commercially available CIEDs. The results show that motion-induced interference should not occur below the activation of the magnetic safety switch (reed switch or Hall-effect sensor, MSS).
Expert opinion: : The determined threshold for motion-induced EMI at 24.8 mT shows that the MSS activation is still the most relevant mechanism that can occur at 0.8 mT. Limit values for the general population do not protect implant carriers from EMI.