Hematobiochemical and histopathological alterations of kidney and testis due to exposure of 4G cell phone radiation in mice

Abstract

The radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by smart phones on biological systems has wide media coverage and public concern in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of fourth-generation cell phone radiation exposure on hematological (Total leukocyte count, Total erythrocyte count, and hemoglobin %), biochemical (Serum creatinine) parameters, and histopathological changes in the kidney and testis of Swiss albino mice. A total of 30 male Swiss albino mice weighing 45–65 g was randomly divided into three groups (n = 10). The first group A was the control group, the second group B, was exposed to 40 minutes of mobile phone radiation daily, the third group C was exposed to 60 minutes of radiation daily from two 2400 Megahertz fourth-generation connected mobile phones for 60 days, respectively. The electromagnetic radiation frequency radiometer measured the frequency of electromagnetic radiation emitted from cell phones. The specific absorption rate was calculated as 0.087 W/kg. The control group was kept under similar conditions, but the field was not given for the same period. All the mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. The blood samples were collected for hematobiochemical study, and then kidney and testis tissues were collected for histopathological study. Results of the study showed that the body weight and total erythrocyte count values were significantly (p<0.05) decreased while total leukocyte count, hemoglobin%, and serum creatinine values were significantly (p<0.05) increased in both the radiation exposure groups relative to the control group. Histopathological observation showed the kidney of 60 minutes exposed mice interstitial inflammation that causes marked mononuclear cellular infiltration compare to the 40 minutes and control group of mice. Compared to control group, histopathological examinations of testicular tissue from the exposed mice group, showed irregular in shapes and non-uniform sizes and fewer spermatogenic cells layer that leads to the larger lumen in the seminiferous tubules. It is concluded that fourth-generation cell phone radiation exposure may affect blood hemostasis and inflammation of mice’s kidney and testis tissue. Based on these studies, it is important to increase public consciousness of potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1319562X21001017

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