Circadian (De)regulation in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

PMID: 31151182 PMCID: PMC6600143 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20112662

Abstract

Head and neck cancer encompass different malignancies that develop in and around the throat, larynx, nose, sinuses and mouth. Most head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) that arise in the flat squamous cells that makeup the thin layer of tissue on the surface of anatomical structures in the head and neck. Each year, HNSCC is diagnosed in more than 600,000 people worldwide, with about 50,000 new cases. HNSCC is considered extremely curable if detected early. But the problem remains in treatment of inoperable cases, residues or late stages. Circadian rhythm regulation has a big role in developing various carcinomas, and head and neck tumors are no exception. A number of studies have reported that alteration in clock gene expression is associated with several cancers, including HNSCC. Analyses on circadian clock genes and their association with HNSCC have shown that expression of PER1PER2, PER3, CRY1, CRY2, CKIε, TIM, and BMAL1 are deregulated in HNSCC tissues. This review paper comprehensively presents data on deregulation of circadian genes in HNSCC and critically evaluates their potential diagnostics and prognostics role in this type of pathology.