Almášiová V, Holovská K, Andrašková S, Cigánková V, Ševčíková Z, Raček A, Andrejčáková Z, Beňová K, Tóth Š, Tvrdá E, Molnár J, Račeková E. Potential influence of prenatal 2.45 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on Wistar albino rat testis. Histol Histopathol. 2021 Mar 25:18331. doi: 10.14670/HH-18-331. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33779980.
An ever-increasing use of wireless devices over the last decades has forced scientists to clarify their impact on living systems. Since prenatal development is highly sensitive to numerous noxious agents, including radiation, we focused on the assessment of potential adverse effects of microwave radiation (MR) on testicular development. Pregnant Wistar albino rats (3 months old, weighing 282±8 g) were exposed to pulsed MR at a frequency of 2.45 GHz, mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm², and a specific absorption rate of 1.82 W/kg for 2 hours/day throughout pregnancy. Male offspring were no longer exposed to MR following birth. Samples of biological material were collected after reaching adulthood (75 days). In utero MR exposure caused degenerative changes in the testicular parenchyma of adult rats. The shape of the seminiferous tubules was irregular, germ cells were degenerated and often desquamated. The diameters of the seminiferous tubules and the height of the germinal epithelium were significantly decreased (both at ∗∗p<0.01), while the interstitial space was significantly increased (∗∗p<0.01) when compared to the controls. In the group of rats prenatally exposed to MR, the somatic and germ cells were rich in vacuoles and their organelles were often altered. Necrotizing cells were more frequent and empty spaces between Sertoli cells and germ cells were observed. The Leydig cells contained more lipid droplets. An increased Fluoro Jade – C and superoxide dismutase 2 positivity was detected in the rats exposed to MR. Our results confirmed adverse effects of MR on testicular development.