Influence of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on the Fertility System: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Roozbeh N1, Abdi F2, Amraee A3, Atarodi Kashani Z4, Darvish L5,6.
JMIR Res Protoc. 2018 Feb 8;7(2):e33. doi: 10.2196/resprot.9102.

Author information

Mother and Child Welfare Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Islamic Republic Of Iran.
Students Research Committee, Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic Of Iran.
Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic Of Iran.
Iranshahr university of medical sciences, Iranshahr, Islamic Republic Of Iran.
Zabol Medicinal Plants Research Center, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Islamic Republic Of Iran.
Research & Technology Department, Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Islamic Republic Of Iran.



Due to the increased number of users of mobile phones, tablets, and other devices over the past few years, concerns about the potential impact of mobile phones on health are growing. The influence of mobile phone exposure on male fertility has been studied in recent years. Other research has shown that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) increase macrophages in the corpus luteum and growing follicles. Due to conflicting results among studies and since no systematic review has been performed to analyze the effects of radiofrequency EMF exposure from electronic devices on the fertility system in recent years, this evidence-based study is necessary.


The main objectives of this study are to determine the best evidence associated with the influence of radiofrequency EMFs on the fertility system and to provide insight into a potential mechanism using our observations.


In this systematic review, the databases and gray literature will be searched with no language and date limitation. The following databases will be searched: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, ProQuest, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and other Persian databases. The combination of the Medical Subject Heading terms “radiofrequency electromagnetic” and “male reproductive system” or “female reproductive system” will be searched. Observational study designs will be included but case reports, case series, reviews, and letters to the editor will be excluded. Papers selected for retrieval will be evaluated by two independent referees for methodological validation before entering a review using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for nonrandomized studies and cohort studies.


The results of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication and also presented at PROSPERO.


This systematic review will provide evidence-based data on the effect of radiofrequency EMFs on the fertility system. This article will also classify the harmful effect of radiofrequency waves on primary and secondary infertility. This study could be useful for decreasing infertility. This is important because the rate of infertility is growing, leading to negative outcomes for couples and the health care system.


PROSPERO CRD42017072462; (Archived by WebCite at


electromagnetic field; fertility; reproduction

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